Openness in Medieval Europe

Ed. by Manuele Gragnolati
Almut Suerbaum
Berlin: ICI Berlin Press, 2022
ISBN 978-3-96558-031-2 | Hardcover | 32 EUR | vi, 356 pp. | 22.9 cm x 15.2 cm
ISBN 978-3-96558-032-9 | Paperback | 17 EUR | vi, 356 pp. | 22.9 cm x 15.2 cm
ISBN 978-3-96558-033-6 | PDF | Open Access | 5 MB
ISBN 978-3-96558-034-3 | EPUB | Open Access | 4 MB
This volume challenges the persistent association of the Middle Ages with closure and fixity. Bringing together a range of disciplines and perspectives, it identifies and uncovers forms of openness which are often obscured by modern assumptions, and demonstrates how they coexist with, or even depend upon, enclosure and containment in paradoxical and unexpected ways. Explored through notions such as porosity, vulnerability, exposure, unfinishedness, and inclusivity, openness turns out to permeate medieval culture, unsettling boundaries, binaries, and clear-cut distinctions.
Keywords: cultural inquiry; medieval culture; openness; porosity; vulnerability; subjectivity; textuality; community; enclosure; containment
Openness in Medieval Europe
Manuele Gragnolati
Almut Suerbaum
This volume challenges the persistent association of the Middle Ages with closure and fixity. Bringing together a range of disciplines and perspectives, it identifies and uncovers forms of openness which are often obscured by modern assumptions, and demonstrates how they coexist with, or even depend upon, enclosure and containment in paradoxical and unexpected ways. Explored through notions such as porosity, vulnerability, exposure, unfinishedness, and inclusivity, openness turns out to permeate medieval culture, unsettling boundaries, binaries, and clear-cut distinctions.
Is Part Of
ICI Berlin Press
19 April 2022
Number in Series
cultural inquiry
medieval culture
© by the author(s)
Except for images or otherwise noted, this publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
number of pages
vi, 356
Table Of Contents
Introduction: Medieval Openness | MANUELE GRAGNOLATI and ALMUT SUERBAUM | 1–21
An Interminable Work? The Openness of Augustine’s Confessions | FRANCESCO GIUSTI | 23–43
What Was Open in/about Early Scholastic Thought? | PHILIPPA BYRNE | 45–64
Speech-Wrangling: Shutting Up and Shutting Out the Oral Tradition in Some Icelandic Sagas | BRIAN MCMAHON | 65–84
Interrupted and Unfinished: The Open-Ended Dante of the Commedia | NICOLÒ CRISAFI | 85–102
Medieval Denmark and its Languages: The Case for a More Open Literary Historiography | ALASTAIR MATTHEWS | 103–23
Merlin’s Open Mind: Madness, Prophecy, and Poetry in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Vita Merlini | MONIKA OTTER | 127–43
Enclosure and Exposure: Locating the ‘House without Walls’ | ANNIE SUTHERLAND | 145–67
Unlikely Matter: The Open and the Nomad in The Book of Margery Kempe and the Middle English Christina Mirabilis | JOHANNES WOLF | 169–89
Including the Excluded: Strategies of Opening Up in Late Medieval Religious Writing | ALMUT SUERBAUM | 191–208
Openness and Intensity: Petrarch’s Becoming Laurel in Rerum vulgarium fragmenta 23 and 228 | MANUELE GRAGNOLATI and FRANCESCA SOUTHERDEN | 209–24
Highest Openness: On Agamben’s Promise | DAMIANO SACCO | 227–48
The Monastic Enclosure | BENJAMIN THOMPSON | 249–69
The Openness of the Enclosed Convent: Evidence from the Lüne Letter Collection | EDMUND WAREHAM | 271–88
The Book Half Open: Humanist Friendship in Holbein’s Portrait of Hermann von Wedigh III | OREN MARGOLIS | 289–310
has manifestation
ISBN 978-3-96558-031-2 | Hardcover | 32 EUR | vi, 356 pp. | 22.9 cm x 15.2 cm
ISBN 978-3-96558-032-9 | Paperback | 17 EUR | vi, 356 pp. | 22.9 cm x 15.2 cm
ISBN 978-3-96558-033-6 | PDF | Open Access | 5 MB
ISBN 978-3-96558-034-3 | EPUB | Open Access | 4 MB


  • Abelard, Peter, Collationes, ed. and trans. by J. Marenbon and G. Orlandi (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001)
  • Abelard, Peter, Expositio in Hexameron, ed. by Mary Romig (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004)
  • Abelard, Peter, Sic et non, ed. by Blanche B. Boyer and Richard McKeon (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976–77)
  • Abelard, Peter, ‘Verbo Verbum Virgo Concipiens’, in Hymni, PL 178. 1765–1816 (1789)
  • Alan of Lille, Distinctiones, Patrologia Latina 210. 685–1012
  • Alighieri, Dante, La Commedia secondo l’antica vulgata, ed. by Giorgio Petrocchi, 4 vols, 2nd edn (Florence: Le Lettere, 1994)
  • Alighieri, Dante, The Divine Comedy, trans. by Mark Musa, 3 vols (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984–86), I: Inferno (1984)
  • Alighieri, Dante, Inferno, trans. by Robert Hollander and Jean Hollander (New York: Anchor, 2000)
  • Alighieri, Dante, Monarchia, ed. and trans. by Prue Shaw (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)
  • Alighieri, Dante, Paradiso, trans. by Robert Hollander and Jean Hollander (New York: Doubleday, 2007)
  • Alighieri, Dante, Purgatorio, trans. by Robert Hollander and Jean Hollander (New York: Anchor, 2003)
  • Die Amerbachkorrespondenz, ed. by Alfred Hartmann and others, 11 vols (Basel: Verlag der Universitätsbibliothek, 1942–2010)
  • Ancrene Wisse: A Corrected Edition of the Text in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 402 with Variants from Other Manuscripts, ed. by Bella Millett, EETS, orig. ser., 325–26, 2 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005–06)
  • Aretino, Pietro, Cortigiana (Venice: Francesco Marcolini, 1535)
  • Aretino, Pietro, De le Lettere di M. Pietro Aretino: Libro primo (Venice: Francesco Marcolini, 1538)
  • Aretino, Pietro, Edizione nazionale delle opere di Pietro Aretino, 10 vols (Rome: Salerno Editrice, 1992–)
  • Augustine, Confessions, ed. by James J. O’Donnell, 3 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992)
  • Augustine, Confessions, trans. by Francis J. Sheed, ed. by Michael P. Foley, intro. by Peter Brown, 2nd edn (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2006)
  • Augustine, Confessions, trans. by William Watts, Loeb Classical Library, 26–27, 2 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1912)
  • Augustine, De doctrina christiana, Patrologia Latina 34. 15–122
  • Bede, In Cantica canticorum, Patrologia Latina 191. 1065–1235
  • Benedict, Saint, RB 1980: The Rule of St Benedict in Latin and English with Notes, ed. and trans., by Timothy Fry (Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1981)
  • Bernard of Clairvaux, Sermones de tempore, Patrologia Latina 183. 35–360
  • Bernard of Cluny, Ordo Cluniacensis per Bernardum Saeculi XI. Scriptorem, in Vetus Disciplina Monastica, ed. by Marquard Herrgott (Paris: Caroli Osmont, 1726), pp. 134–364
  • Bibliorum Sacrorum cum Glossa Ordinaria, 6 vols (Venice: [n. pub.], 1603)
  • Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson, Om de norske kongers sagaer (Oslo: Dybwad, 1937)
  • Boccaccio, Giovanni, Trattatello in laude di Dante, ed. by Vittore Branca (Milan: Mondadori, 1974)
  • Bonaventure, Bonaventurae opera omnia, ed. by PP. Collegii S. Bonaventurae, 10 vols (Quaracchi: Collegium S. Bonaventurae, 1882–1902), V: Quaestiones disputatae de perfectione euangelica (1891)
  • Bonaventure, Commentary of the Gospel of Luke, trans. by R. Karris, 3 vols (New York: Franciscan Institute Publications, 2001–04), I (2001)
  • Bonaventure, De assumptione B. Virginis Mariae, in Bonaventurae opera omnia, ed. by PP. Collegii S. Bonaventurae, 10 vols (Quaracchi: Collegium S. Bonaventurae, 1882–1902), IX (1901)
  • Brennu-Njáls saga, ed. by Einar Ólafur Sveinsson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 12 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1954)
  • Cassian, John, De Coenobiorum Institutis Libri Duodecim, Patrologia Latina 49. 53–476
  • Castiglione, Baldesar, Il libro del cortegiano, ed. by Vittorio Cian (Florence: Sansoni, 1947)
  • Cavalcanti, Guido, Rime, ed. by Roberto Rea and Giorgio Inglese (Rome: Carocci, 2011)
  • Caxton, William, Gilte Legende, ed. by Richard Hamer, EETS, old ser., 327–28, 339, 3 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006–12)
  • Die Chronik des Klosters Lüne über die Jahre 1481–1530: Hs. Lüne 13, ed. by Philipp Stenzig (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2019)
  • Collectanea Anglo-Premonstratensia, ed. by Francis A. Gasquet, Camden Society, 3rd ser., 6, 10, 12, 3 vols (London: Camden Society, 1904–06)
  • Concilia Magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae, a Synodo Verolamiensi A.D. CCCC XLVI. ad Londinensem A.D. M DCCXVII, ed. by David Wilkins, 4 vols (London: R. Gosling, 1737)
  • Crispin, Gilbert, Disputatio Iudei et Christiani, in The Works of Gilbert Crispin, Abbot of Westminster, ed. by Anna Sapir Abulafia and Gillian R. Evans (London: Oxford University Press, 1986), pp. 1–53
  • Cursor Mundi: A Northumbrian Poem of the Fourteenth Century in 4 Versions, ed. by Richard Morris, EETS, orig. ser., 57, 59, 62, 66, 68, 99, 101, 7 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961–66)
  • Danmarks middelalderlige annaler, ed. by Erik Kroman (Copenhagen: [n. pub.], 1980)
  • The Didascalicon of Hugh of St. Victor: A Medieval Guide to the Arts, trans. by Jerome Taylor (New York: Columbia University Press, 1961)
  • Documents Illustrating the Activities of the General and Provincial Chapters of the English Black Monks, 1215–1540, ed. by William A. Pantin, Camden Society, 3rd ser., 45, 47, 54, 3 vols (London: Camden Society, 1931–37)
  • Droplaugarsona saga, ed. by Jón Jóhannesson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 11 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1950)
  • Du Bellay, Jean, Correspondance du Cardinal Jean du Bellay, ed. by Rémy Scheurer and others, 7 vols (Paris: Klincksieck; Société de l’histoire de France, 1969–2017)
  • Eckhart, Meister, Werke, ed. by Niklaus Largier, 2 vols (Frankfurt a.M.: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, 2008), I, trans. by Josef Quint
  • Edmund of Abingdon, Mirour de Seinte Egylse, ed. by Alan D. Wilshere (London: Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1982)
  • Edmund of Abingdon, Speculum Religiosorum and Speculum Ecclesie, ed. by Helen P. Forshaw (London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1973)
  • Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar, ed. by Sigurður Nordal, Íslenzk Fornrit, 2 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1933)
  • Erasmus of Rotterdam, Giulio, ed. and trans. [into Italian] by Silvana Seidel Menchi (Turin: Einaudi, 2014)
  • Erasmus of Rotterdam, Opera omnia Desiderii Erasmi Roterodami (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing; Leiden: Brill, 1969–)
  • Erasmus of Rotterdam, Opus epistolarum Des. Erasmi Roterodami, ed. by Percy S. Allen and others, 12 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906–58)
  • La Estorie del Evangelie: A Parallel Text Edition, ed. by Celia M. Millward (Heidelberg: Winter, 1998)
  • Eyrbyggja saga, ed. by Einar Ólafur Sveinsson and Matthías Þórðarson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 4 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1935)
  • The First Grammatical Treatise: Introduction, Text, Notes, Translation, Vocabulary, Facsimiles, ed. by Hreinn Benediktsson (Reykjavik: Institute of Nordic Linguistics, 1972)
  • ‘La Folie Tristan (Oxford)’, ed. and trans. by Samuel N. Rosenberg, in Early French Tristan Poems, ed. by Norris J. Lacy, 2 vols (Cambridge: Brewer, 1998), I, pp. 258–310
  • The Four Ancient Books of Wales, ed. and trans. by William F. Skene (Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1968) <> [accessed 30 July 2020]
  • Geiler von Kaysersberg, Johannes, Die aeltesten Schriften Geilers von Kaysersberg: XXI Artikel — Briefe — Todtenbüchlein — Beichtspiegel — Seelenheil — Sendtbrieff — Bilger, ed. by Léon Dacheux (Freiburg i.Br.: Herder, 1882)
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain, ed. by Michael D. Reeve, trans. by Neil Wright (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2007)
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth, Life of Merlin/Vita Merlini, ed. and trans. by Basil Clark (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1973)
  • Gottfried von Straßburg, Tristan, ed. and trans. [into modern German] by Rüdiger Krohn, 3rd edn, 3 vols (Stuttgart: Reclam, 1984)
  • Gottfried von Straßburg, Tristan, trans. by Arthur Hatto (London: Penguin, 1967)
  • Gottfried von Straßburg, Tristan und Isold, ed. and trans. by Walter Haug and Manfred Scholz, 2 vols (Frankfurt a.M.: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, 2011)
  • Gregory the Great, Moralia in Iob, ed. Marc Adriaen, 3 vols (Turnhout: Brepols: 1979–85)
  • Grettis saga Ásmundarsonar, ed. by Guðni Jónsson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 7 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1936)
  • Grosseteste, Robert, Hexaëmeron, ed. by Richard C. Dales and Servus Gieben (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982)
  • Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu, in Borgfirðinga sögur: Hœnsa-Þóris saga, Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu, Bjarnar saga Hítdœlakappa, Heiðarvíga saga, Gísls þáttr Illugasonar, ed. by Sigurður Nordal and Guðni Jónsson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 3 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1938), pp. 40–108
  • Henry of Ghent, Opera omnia, 38 vols (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1979–2018), VI: Quodlibet ii, ed. by R. Wielockx (1983)
  • Hildebertus Cenomannensis Episcopus, Carmina Minora, ed. by A. B. Scott, 2nd edn (Munich: Sauer, 2001) <>
  • Holsteinische Reimchronik, ed. by Ludwig Weiland, in MGH Deutsche Chroniken, 2 (Hanover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1877), pp. 609–33
  • Honorius Augustodunensis, Opera omnia, Patrologia Latina 172
  • Hugh of St Victor, De archa Noe, Libellus de formatione arche, ed. by Patrice Sicard (Turnhout: Brepols, 2001)
  • Hugh of St Victor, Didiscalicon, ed. by Charles H. Buttimer (Washington, DC: Catholic University Press, 1939)
  • Iacopo da Varazze, Legenda Aurea, ed. by Giovanni P. Maggioni, 2nd edn, 2 vols (Florence: SISMEL, 1998)
  • Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, PL 82. 73–760
  • James of Viterbo, De regimine christiano, ed. and trans. by R. W. Dyson (Leiden: Brill, 2009)
  • Johannes de Caulibus, Meditaciones Vite Christi, ed. by C. Mary Stallings-Taney (Turnhout: Brepols, 1997)
  • Laxdæla saga, ed. by Einar Ólafur Sveinsson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 5 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1934)
  • Lemmel, Katerina, Pepper for Prayer: The Correspondence of the Birgittine Nun Katerina Lemmel (1516–1525); Edition and Translation, ed. and trans. by Volker Schier, Corine Schleif, and Anne Simon (Stockholm: Runica & Mediaevalia, 2019)
  • Love, Nicholas, The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ: A Reading Text, ed. by Michael G. Sargent (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2004)
  • Ludolph of Saxony, Vita Jesu Christi: Ex Evangelio et Approbatis ab Ecclesia Catholica Doctoribus Sedule Collecta, ed. by Ludovic M. Rigollot, 4 vols (Paris: Palmé, 1878)
  • Machiavelli, Niccolò, Edizione nazionale delle opere di Niccolò Machiavelli, 6 parts (Rome: Salerno Editrice, 2001–)
  • Margery Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe, ed. by Barry Windeatt (Cambridge: Brewer, 2000)
  • Marsilius of Padua, Defensor pacis, ed. by C. W. Previté-Orton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928)
  • Mechthild von Magdeburg, Das fließende Licht der Gottheit, ed. by Gisela Vollmann-Profe (Frankfurt a.M.: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, 2003
  • Mechthild von Magdeburg, Lux Divinitatis, ed. by Ernst Hellgardt, Balázs Nemes, and Elke Senne (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2019)
  • Ménard, Philippe, Le rire et le sourire dans le roman courtois en France au Moyen Âge (1150–1250) (Geneva: Droz, 1969)
  • Miller, Max, Die Söflinger Briefe und das Klarissenkloster Söflingen bei Ulm a.D. im Spätmittelalter (Würzburg-Aumühle: Triltsch, 1940)
  • Mirk, John, Festial, ed. by Susan Powell, EETS, orig. ser., 334–35, 2 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009–11)
  • Narrative and Legislative Texts from Early Cîteaux, ed. by Chrysogonus Waddell (Cîteaux: Commentarii cistercienses, 1999)
  • ‘Netzwerke der Nonnen: Edition und Erschließung der Briefsammlung aus Kloster Lüne (ca. 1460–1555)’, ed. by Eva Schlotheuber and others, with Philipp Stenzig and others <> [accessed 26 October 2020]
  • Pascasius Radbertus, Expositio in Matheo, ed. by Beda Paulus, 3 vols (Turnhout: Brepols, 1984)
  • Patrologia Latina [ PL], ed. by J.-P. Migne, 221 vols (Paris: Garnier, 1844–64)
  • Peter Comestor, Historia Scholastica, Patrologia Latina 198. 1045–1721
  • Peter of Poitiers, Allegoriae super tabernaculum Moysi, ed. by Philip S. Moore and James A. Corbett (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1938)
  • Peter the Chanter, Verbum abbreviatum, ed. by Monique Boutry (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004)
  • Peter the Venerable, Adversus Iudeorum inveteratam duritiem, ed. by Yvonne Friedman (Turnhout: Brepols, 1985)
  • Petrarca, Francesco, Canzoniere, ed. by Marco Santagata, rev. edn (Milan: Mondadori, 2010)
  • Petrarca, Francesco, Canzoniere, Trionfi: L’incunabolo veneziano di Vindelino da Spira del 1470 nell’esemplare della Biblioteca civica Queriniana di Brescia con figure dipinte da Antonio Grifo, INC. G V 15, ed. by Giuseppe Frasso, Giordana Mariani, and Ennio Sandal (Rome: Salerno, 2016)
  • Petrarca, Francesco, Lettres familières, 6 vols (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2002–15), VI, ed. by Vittorio Rossi (2015)
  • Petrarca, Francesco, Opere latine di Francesco Petrarca, ed. by Antonietta Bufano, 2 vols (Turin: Unione tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1975), II, pp. 1255–83
  • Petrarca, Francesco, ‘Petrarch’s Coronation Oration’, trans. by Ernest Hatch Wilkins, PMLA, 68.5 (December 1953), pp. 1241–50 <>
  • Petrarca, Francesco, Petrarch’s Lyric Poems: The ‘Rime Sparse’ and Other Lyrics, ed. and trans. by Robert M. Durling (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976)
  • Petrarca, Francesco, Trionfi, Rime estravaganti, Codice degli abbozzi, ed. by Vinicio Pacca and Laura Paolino (Milan: Mondadori, 1996)
  • Petrus Alfonsi, Dialogue against the Jews, trans. by. Irven M. Resnick (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2006)
  • Petrus Alfonsi, Dialogus, Patrologia Latina 157. 535–672
  • Pirckheimer, Caritas, Quellensammlung, ed. by Josef Pfanner, 4 vols (Landshut: Caritas Pirckheimer Forschung, 1966–67), II: Briefe von, an und über Caritas Pirckheimer (aus den Jahren 1498–1530) (1966)
  • Pseudo-Jerome, Commentarii in novum testamentum, Patrologia Latina 30. 531–900
  • Pucelle, Jean, The Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux, Queen of France ( c. 1324–28), Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Cloisters Collection, Accession No 54.1.2, fols 15v–16r <>
  • Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar, ed. by Finnur Jónsson (Copenhagen: Gads Forlag, 1932)
  • The Saga of Olaf Tryggvason, trans. by Theodore M. Andersson (New York: De Gruyter, 2003)
  • The Saga of Tristram and Ísönd, trans. by Paul Schach (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1973)
  • Die Sangspruchdichtung Rumelants von Sachsen: Edition — Übersetzung — Kommentar, ed. and trans. by Peter Kern (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014) <>
  • Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, ed. by Karsten Friis-Jensen, trans. by Peter Fisher, 2 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2015)
  • Sneglu-Halla þáttr, in Eyfirðinga sǫgur, ed. by Jónas Kristjánsson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 9 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1956), pp. 261–95
  • A Stanzaic Life of Christ, ed. by Frances A. Foster, EETS, orig. ser., 166 (London: Oxford University Press, 1926)
  • A Talkyng of þe Loue of God, ed. by M. Salvina Westra (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1950)
  • P. Terenti Afri Comoediae, ed. by Robert Kauer and Wallace M. Lindsay (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963)
  • Þe Wohunge of Ure Lauerd, ed. by W. Meredith Thompson, EETS, orig. ser., 241 (London: Oxford University Press, 1958)
  • Thomas Aquinas, Commentary on the Gospel of John: Chapters 1–5, trans. by Fabian Larcher and James A. Weisheipl (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 2010)
  • Thomas of Cantimpré, ‘The Middle English Life of Christina Mirabilis by Thomas of Cantimpré’, in Three Women of Liège: A Critical Edition and Commentary on the Middle English Lives of Elizabeth of Spalbeek, Christina Mirabilis and Marie d’Oignies, ed. by Jennifer N. Brown (Turnhout: Brepols, 2008), pp. 51–84 <>
  • Þórðar saga hreðu, in Kjalnesinga saga: Jökuls þáttr Búasonar, Víglundar saga, Króka-refs saga, Þórðar saga hreðu, Finnboga saga, Gunnars saga keldugnúpsfífls, ed. by Jóhannes Halldórsson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 14 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1959), pp. 161–226
  • Þorleifs þáttr jarlsskálds, in Eyfirðinga sǫgur, ed. by Jónas Kristjánsson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 9 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1956), pp. 213–29
  • Þorskfirðinga saga, in Harðar saga: Bárðar saga, Þorskfirðinga saga, Flóamanna saga, ed. by Þórhallur Vilmundarson and Bjarni Vilhjálmsson, Íslenzk Fornrit, 13 (Reykjavik: Hið Íslenzka Fornritafélag, 1991), pp. 173–227
  • Ulrich, Antiquiores Consuetudines Cluniacensis Monasterii Collectore Udalrico Monacho Benedictino, Patrologia Latina 149. 635–778
  • Visitations in the Diocese of Lincoln, 1517–1531, ed. by A. Hamilton Thompson, Lincoln Record Society, 33, 35, 37, 3 vols (Lincoln: Lincoln Record Society, 1940–47)
  • Visitations of Religious Houses in the Diocese of Lincoln, ed. by A. Hamilton Thompson, Canterbury and York Society, 7, 14, 21, 3 vols (London: Canterbury and York Society, 1915–27)
  • Visitations of the Diocese of Norwich, AD 1492–1532, ed. by Augustus Jessopp, Camden Society, new ser., 43 (London: Camden Society, 1888)
  • Vita Aedwardi Regis, ed. and trans. by Frank Barlow (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992)
  • Wackernagel, Philipp, Das deutsche Kirchenlied von der ältesten Zeit bis zum Anfang des XVII. Jahrhunderts, 5 vols (Leipzig: Teubner, 1864–77)
  • Wackernagel, Philipp, Das deutsche Kirchenlied von M. Luther bis auf N. Herman und A. Blaurer (Stuttgart: Liesching, 1841)
  • William of Ockham, Dialogus, ed. by John Kilcullen and others <> [accessed 22 December 2019]
  • Abulafia, Anna Sapir, ‘Jewish–Christian Disputations and the Twelfth-Century Renaissance’, Journal of Medieval History, 15.2 (1989), pp. 105–25 <>
  • Adams, Jonathan, ‘Indledning: Østnordisk filologi — nu og i fremtiden’, in Østnordisk filologi — nu og i fremtiden, ed. by Jonathan Adams (Copenhagen: Universitets-Jubilæets danske Samfund, [n.d.]), pp. 11–13
  • Agamben, Giorgio, The Highest Poverty: Monastic Rules and Form-of-Life, trans. by Adam Kotsko (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013)
  • Agamben, Giorgio, The Open: Man and Animal, trans. by Kevin Attell (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003)
  • Agamben, Giorgio, Opus Dei: An Archaeology of Duty, trans. by Adam Kotsko (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013)
  • Agamben, Giorgio, ‘La parola e il sapere’, aut-aut, September–December 1980, pp. 155–66
  • Agamben, Giorgio, ‘Postilla 2001’, in La comunità che viene (Turin: Bollati Boringhieri, 2001), pp. 89–93
  • Agamben, Giorgio, Potentialities, trans. by Daniel Heller-Roazen (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999)
  • Agamben, Giorgio, The Sacrament of Language: An Archaeology of the Oath, trans. by Adam Kotsko (Stanford: Stanford University Press 2011)
  • Agamben, Giorgio, The Time That Remains: A Commentary on the Letter to the Romans, trans. by Patricia Dailey (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005) <>
  • Ahern, John, ‘Binding the Book: Hermeneutics and Manuscript Production in Paradiso 33’, PMLA, 97.5 (1982), pp. 800–09 <>
  • Ahern, John, ‘Dante’s Last Word: The Comedy as a liber coelestis’, Dante Studies, 102 (1984), pp. 1–14
  • Aichmayr, Michael, ‘Taliesin: Literarische Überlieferung der Taliesin-Figur’, in Verführer, Schurken, Magier, ed. by Ulrich Müller and Werner Wunderlich (St Gall: UVK, 2001), pp. 903–14
  • Ainsworth, Maryan W., and Joshua P. Waterman, German Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1350–1600 (New Haven, CT: Metropolitan Museum of Art, distributed by Yale University Press, 2013)
  • Althoff, Gerd, Spielregeln der Politik im Mittelalter: Kommunikation in Frieden und Fehde (Darmstadt: Primus, 1997)
  • Altschul, Nadia R., Geographies of Philological Knowledge: Postcoloniality and the Transatlantic National Epic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012) <>
  • Amtower, Laurel, Engaging Words: The Culture of Reading in the Later Middle Ages (New York: Palgrave, 2000) <>
  • Andersen, Elizabeth, ‘Translation, Transposition, Transmission: Low German and Processes of Cultural Transformation’, in Transnational German Studies, ed. by Rebecca Braun and Benedict Schofield (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2020), pp. 17–41
  • Andersen, Per, ‘Dating the Laws of Medieval Denmark: Studies of the Manuscripts of the Danish Church Laws’, in Denmark and Europe in the Middle Ages, c. 1000–1525: Essays in Honour of Professor Michael H. Gelting, ed. by Kerstin Hundahl, Lars Kjær, and Niels Lund (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), pp. 183–202
  • Andersen, Per, Legal Procedure and Practice in Medieval Denmark (Leiden: Brill, 2011) <>
  • Andersson, Theodore M., ‘The First Icelandic King’s Saga: Oddr Snorrason’s “Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar” or “The Oldest Saga of Saint Olaf”?’, Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 103.2 (2004), pp. 139–55
  • Andersson, Theodore M., The Growth of the Medieval Icelandic Sagas (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006)
  • Andersson-Schmitt, Margarete, ‘“Siælinna thrøst” und seine Varianten’, in Niederdeutsch in Skandinavien, III, ed. by Lennart Elmevik and Kurt Erich Schöndorf, Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie, 6 (Berlin: Schmidt, 1992), pp. 70–76
  • Antonsson, Haki, ‘Sanctus Kanutus rex’, in Medieval Nordic Literature in Latin: A Website of Authors and Anonymous Works c. 1100–1530, ed. by Stephan Borgehammar and others <> [accessed 24 January 2020]
  • Appuhn, Horst, and Christian von Heusinger, ‘Der Fund kleiner Andachtsbilder des 13. bis 17. Jahrhunderts im Kloster Wienhausen’, Niederdeutsche Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte, 4 (1965), pp. 157–238
  • Arnold, John, and Katherine J. Lewis, eds, A Companion to the Book of Margery Kempe (Woodbridge: Brewer, 2004)
  • Ascoli, Albert Russell, Dante and the Making of a Modern Author (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008) <>
  • Attridge, Derek, The Singularity of Literature (London: Routledge, 2004) <>
  • Attridge, Derek, The Work of Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015) <>
  • Austin, R. G., ‘Ille Ego Qui Quondam’, Classical Quarterly, n.s., 18 (1968), pp. 107–15 <>
  • Baert, Barbara, ‘The Pool of Bethsaïda: The Cultural History of a Holy Place in Jerusalem’, Viator, 36 (2005), pp. 1–22 <>
  • Bätschmann, Oskar, and Pascal Griener, Hans Holbein (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997)
  • Bale, Anthony, ‘Richard Salthouse of Norwich and the Scribe of The Book of Margery Kempe’, Chaucer Review, 52.2 (2017), pp. 173–87 <>
  • Barański, Zygmunt G., ‘ Terza rima, “Canto”, “Canzon”, “Cantica”’, in Dante Now: Current Trends in Dante Studies, ed. by Theodore J. Cachey, Jr (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995
  • Barolini, Teodolinda, ‘The Making of a Lyric Sequence: Time and Narrative in Petrarch’s Rerum vulgarium fragmenta’, MLN, 104.1 (January 1989), pp. 1–38 <>
  • Barolini, Teodolinda, The Undivine ‘Comedy’: Detheologizing Dante (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992) <>
  • Barthes, Roland, ‘From Work to Text’, in Barthes, Image, Music, Text, trans. by Stephen Heath (London: Fontana Press, 1977), pp. 155–64
  • Barthes, Roland, Image, Music, Text, ed. and trans. by Stephen Heath (New York: Hill and Wang, 1977)
  • Baur, Kilian, Freunde und Feinde: Niederdeutsche, Dänen und die Hanse im Spätmittelalter (1376–1513) (Vienna: Böhlau, 2018) <>
  • Beach, Alison I., and Isabelle Cochelin, eds, The Cambridge History of Medieval Monasticism in the Latin West, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020) <>
  • Beadle, Richard, and Pamela King, eds, York Mystery Plays: A Selection in Modern Spelling (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984)
  • Beckwith, Sarah, ‘A Very Material Mysticism: The Medieval Mysticism of Margery Kempe’, in Medieval Literature: Criticism, Ideology and History, ed. by David Aers (Brighton: Harvester Press, 1986), pp. 34–57
  • Benjamin, Walter, ‘On the Concept of History’, trans. by Harry Zohn, in Selected Writings, 4 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004–06), IV: 1938–1940, ed. by Michael W. Jennings (2006), pp. 389–400
  • Bennington, Geoffrey, and Jacques Derrida, Jacques Derrida (Paris: Seuil, 1991)
  • Bennington, Geoffrey, and Jacques Derrida, Jacques Derrida, trans. by Geoffrey Bennington (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993)
  • Benveniste, Émile, Dictionary of Indo-European Concepts and Society, trans. by Elizabeth Palmer (Chicago: Hau Books, 2016)
  • Berger, David, ‘Gilbert Crispin, Alan of Lille, and Jacob ben Reuben: A Study in the Transmission of Medieval Polemic’, Speculum, 49.1 (1974), pp. 34–47 <>
  • Bersani, Leo, The Freudian Body: Psychoanalysis and Art (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986)
  • Bibire, Paul, ‘On Reading the Icelandic Sagas: Approaches to Old Icelandic Texts’, in West over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement before 1300, ed. by Beverley Ballin Smith, Simon Taylor, and Gareth Williams (Leiden: Brill, 2007), pp. 3–18
  • Bland, Mark, A Guide to Early Printed Books and Manuscripts (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010) <>
  • Blosen, Hans, ‘Ein mittelniederdeutsches “Speculum humanae salvationis” in dänischem Gebrauch’, in Vulpis Adolatio: Festschrift für Hubertus Menke zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. by Robert Peters, Horst P. Pütz, and Ulrich Weber (Heidelberg: Winter, 2001), pp. 71–88
  • Boccignone, Manuela, ‘Un albero piantato nel cuore (Petrarca e Iacopone)’, Lettere italiane, 52.2 (April–June 2000), pp. 225–64
  • Bolzoni, Lina, La rete delle immagini: Predicazione in volgare dalle origini a Bernardino da Siena (Turin: Einaudi, 2002)
  • Bomford, Kate, ‘Friendship and Immortality: Holbein’s Ambassadors Revisited’, Renaissance Studies, 18 (2004), pp. 544–81 <>
  • Borgolte, Michael, and others, eds, Mittelalter im Labor: Die Mediävistik testet Wege zu einer transkulturellen Europawissenschaft (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2008) <>
  • Bowen, Barbara C., The Age of Bluff: Paradox and Ambiguity in Rabelais and Montaigne (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972)
  • Braidotti, Rosi, ‘Intensive Genre and the Demise of Gender’, Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities, 13.2 (2008), pp. 45–57 <>
  • Braidotti, Rosi, The Posthuman (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2013)
  • Braidotti, Rosi, ‘Writing as a Nomadic Subject’, Comparative Critical Studies, 11.2–3 (2014), pp. 163–84 <>
  • Brandenburg, Elena, Karl der Große im Norden: Rezeption französischer Heldenepik in den altostnordischen Handschriften (Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto, 2019)
  • Brenkman, John, ‘Writing, Desire, Dialectic in Petrarch’s Rime 23’, Pacific Coast Philology, 9 (April 1974), pp. 12–19 <>
  • Brink, Stefan, ‘ Minnunga mæn: The Usage of Old Knowledgeable Men in Legal Cases’, in Minni and Muninn: Memory in Medieval Nordic Culture, ed. by Pernille Hermann, Stephen A. Mitchell, and Agnes S. Arnórsdóttir (Turnhout: Brepols, 2014), pp. 197–210 <>
  • Bruun, Henry, ‘Rosenkrantz, Erik Ottesen’, in Dansk biografisk leksikon, 3rd edn, ed. by Sv. Cedergreen Bech, 16 vols (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1979–84), XII (1982), pp. 332–33 <> [accessed 13 March 2020]
  • Buck, Stephanie, and others, Hans Holbein the Younger, 1497/98–1543: Portraitist of the Renaissance (The Hague: Royal Cabinet of Paintings Mauritshuis, 2003)
  • Burckhardt-Biedermann, Theophil, ‘Über Zeit und Anlaß des Flugblattes: Luther als Herkules Germanicus’, Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 4 (1905), pp. 38–44
  • Burrow, J. A., Gestures and Looks in Medieval Narrative (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) <>
  • Burton, Janet, and Julie Kerr, The Cistercians in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2011)
  • Burton, Philip, Language in the Confessions of Augustine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007) <>
  • Bynum, Caroline Walker, Dissimilar Similitudes: Devotional Objects in Late Medieval Europe (New York: Zone Books, 2020) <>
  • Bynum, Caroline Walker, The Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity, 200–1336 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995)
  • Bynum, Caroline Walker, ‘Violent Imagery in Late Medieval Piety: Fifteenth Annual Lecture of the GHI, November 8, 2001’, GHI Bulletin, 30 (2002), pp. 3–36
  • Bynum, Caroline Walker, Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007)
  • Byrne, Aisling, and Victoria Flood, eds, Crossing Borders in the Insular Middle Ages (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019) <>
  • Campbell, Lorne, and others, ‘Quentin Matsys, Desiderius Erasmus, Pieter Gillis and Thomas More’, Burlington Magazine, 120 (1978), pp. 716–25
  • Caputo, John D., ‘Augustine and Postmodernism’, in A Companion to Augustine, ed. by Mark Vessey with the assistance of Shelley Reid (Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), pp. 492–504 <>
  • Caputo, John D., The Weakness of God: A Theology of the Event (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006)
  • Caputo, John D., and Michael J. Scanlon, eds, Augustine and Postmodernism: Confessions and Circumfession (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005)
  • Carey, Stephen Mark, ‘Mittelniederdeutsche Weltchronik’, in The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, ed. by Graeme Dunphy, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 2010), II, p. 1115
  • Carlquist, Jonas, Handskriften som historiskt vittne: Fornsvenska samlingshandskrifter — miljö och funktion (Stockholm: Sällskapet Runica et Mediævalia, 2002)
  • Carlson, Stephen C., ‘The Accommodations of Joseph and Mary in Bethlehem: κατάλυμα in Luke 2.7’, New Testament Studies, 56 (2010), pp. 326–42 <>
  • Carruthers, Mary, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008) <>
  • Carruthers, Mary, The Craft of Thought: Meditation, Rhetoric, and the Making of Images, 400–1200 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)
  • Carruthers, Mary, The Experience of Beauty in the Middle Ages (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) <>
  • Chappell, Julie A., Perilous Passages: The Book of Margery Kempe, 1534–1934 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) <>
  • Cheney, Christopher R., Episcopal Visitation of Monasteries in the Thirteenth Century, 2nd edn (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1983)
  • Cheney, Christopher R., ‘Norwich Cathedral Priory in the Fourteenth Century’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 20.1 (1936), pp. 3–30 <>
  • Chinca, Mark, and Christopher Young, eds, Orality and Literacy in the Middle Ages: Essays on a Conjunction and its Consequences in Honour of D. H. Green (Turnhout: Brepols, 2005) <>
  • Chism, Christine, ‘“Ain’t gonna study war no more”: Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britannie and Vita Merlini’, Chaucer Review, 48 (2014), pp. 457–79 <>
  • Ciaranfi, Anna Maria Francini, ‘Iconografia’, in Enciclopedia Dantesca (1970) <> [accessed 30 May 2020]
  • Cipollone, Annalisa, ‘“Né per nova figura il primo alloro …”: La chiusa di Rvf XXIII, Il Canzoniere e Dante’, Rassegna europea di letteratura italiana, 11 (1998), pp. 29–46
  • Cixous, Hélène, Illa (Paris: Des Femmes, 1980)
  • Cixous, Hélène, La (Paris: Gallimard, 1976)
  • Clanchy, M. T., From Memory to the Written Record, 3rd edn (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013)
  • Clover, Carol, The Medieval Saga (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982) <>
  • Clunies Ross, Margaret, The Cambridge Introduction to the Old Norse-Icelandic Saga (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010) <>
  • Coccia, Emanuele, The Life of Plants: A Metaphysics of Mixture, trans. by Dylan J. Montanari (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2019)
  • Coccia, Emanuele, La Vie des plantes: Une métaphysique du mélange (Paris: Éditions Payot & Rivages, 2016)
  • Cohen, Jeffrey J., ‘Inventing Animals in the Middle Ages’, in Engaging with Nature: Essays on the Natural World in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. by Barbara A. Hanawalt, Lisa. J. Kiser, and Julie Berger Hochstrasser (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2009), pp. 39–64
  • Cohen, Jeffrey J., Medieval Identity Machines (London: University of Minnesota Press, 2003)
  • Collins, Raymond F., ‘Inspiration’, in The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, ed. by Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy (London: Chapman, 1989), pp. 1023–33
  • Conklin Akbari, Suzanne, and Karla Mallette, eds, A Sea of Languages: Rethinking the Arabic Role in Medieval Literary History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2013) <>
  • Constable, Giles, Letters and Letter-Collections (Turnhout: Brepols, 1976)
  • Contini, Gianfranco, Un’idea di Dante (Turin: Einaudi, 1970)
  • Conybeare, Catherine, ‘Reading the Confessions’, in A Companion to Augustine, ed. by Mark Vessey with the assistance of Shelley Reid (Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), pp. 99–110 <>
  • Conybeare, Catherine, The Routledge Guidebook to Augustine’s Confessions (New York: Routledge, 2016) <>
  • Crevier Goulet, Sarah-Anaïs, ‘Du jardin d’essai/ esse à l’hortus conclusus: Figures de la naissance et du végétal dans l’oeuvre de Hélène Cixous’, in Des jardins autres, ed. by Paolo Alexandre Néné and Sarah Carmo (Paris: Archives Karéline, 2015), pp. 257–80
  • Croce, Benedetto, La poesia di Dante (Bari: Laterza, 1921)
  • Dahlerup, Pil, Dansk litteratur: Middelalder, 2 vols (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1998)
  • Dahlerup, Pil, Sanselig senmiddelalder: Litterære perspektiver på danske tekster 1482–1523 (Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2010). Saxo ebook
  • Danielsson, Tommy, Sagorna om Norges kungar: Från Magnús góði till Magnús Erlingsson (Hedemora: Gidlunds Förlag, 2002)
  • Davis, James, Medieval Market Morality: Life, Law and Ethics in the English Marketplace, 1200–1500 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012) <>
  • Deeming, Helen, and Elizabeth Eva Leach, eds, Manuscripts and Medieval Song: Inscription, Performance, Context, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015) <>
  • Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. by Brian Massumi (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012)
  • Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. by Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987)
  • Derendorf, Brigitte, ‘Die mittelniederdeutsche “Historienbibel VIII”’, Niederdeutsches Wort, 36 (1996), pp. 167–82
  • Derrida, Jacques, Memoires for Paul de Man, trans. by Cecile Lindsay and others (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989)
  • Derrida, Jacques, Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt and the New International, trans. by Peggy Kamuf (New York: Routledge, 1994)
  • Diem, Albrecht, and Philip Rousseau, ‘Monastic Rules (Fourth to Ninth Century)’, in Cambridge History of Medieval Monasticism, ed. by Beach and Cochelin, I, pp. 162–94 <>
  • Dinshaw, Carolyn, How Soon Is Now? Medieval Texts, Amateur Readers, and the Queerness of Time (Durham: Duke University Press, 2012) <>
  • Doob, Penelope, Nebuchadnezzar’s Children: Conventions of Madness in Medieval Literature (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 1974)
  • Echard, Siân, ‘Palimpsests of Place and Time in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae’, in Teaching and Learning in Medieval Europe: Essays in Honour of Gernot R. Wieland, ed. by Greti Dinkova-Bruun and Tristan Major (Turnhout: Brepols, 2017), pp. 43–59 <>
  • Eco, Umberto, The Open Work, trans. by Anna Cancogni, intro. by David Robey (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989)
  • Eco, Umberto, Opera aperta: Forma e indeterminazione nelle poetiche contemporanee (Milan: Bompiani, 1962)
  • Eco, Umberto, ‘The Poetics of the Open Work’, in The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts (London: Hutchinson, 1979), pp. 47–66
  • Eco, Umberto, The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979)
  • Eden, Kathy, ‘“Between Friends All Is Common”: The Erasmian Adage and Tradition’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 59 (1998), pp. 405–19 <>
  • Eden, Kathy, Friends Hold All Things in Common: Tradition, Intellectual Property, and the Adages of Erasmus (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001) <>
  • Ekrem, Inger, ‘Essay on Date and Purpose’, in Historia Norwegie, ed. by Inger Ekrem and Lars Boje Mortensen, trans. by Peter Fisher (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2006), pp. 155–225
  • Ellis, Roger, ‘The Northern Homily Cycle: A Work in Progress’, Medium Aevum, 88 (2019) <>
  • Elmevik, Lennart, and Ernst Håkon Jahr, eds, Contact between Low German and Scandinavian in the Late Middle Ages: 25 Years of Research (Uppsala: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademien för svensk folkkultur, 2012)
  • Enterline, Lynn, ‘Embodied Voices: Petrarch Reading Himself Reading Ovid’, in Desire in the Renaissance: Psychoanalysis and Literature, ed. by Valeria Finucci and Regina Schwartz (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), pp. 120–45 <>
  • ‘The Eufemiaviser and the Reception of Courtly Culture in Late Medieval Denmark’, conference programme (Zurich, 2018) <> [accessed 4 March 2020]
  • Evangelisti, Silvia, Nuns: A History of Convent Life, 1450–1700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)
  • Evans, Gillian R., ‘Alan of Lille’s Distinctiones and the Problem of Theological Language’, Sacris erudiri, 24 (1980), pp. 67–86 <>
  • Expanding German Studies: An Interactive Bibliography for Teachers and Lecturers <> [accessed 18 September 2020]
  • Fabry-Tehranchy, Irène, ‘Écrire l’histoire de Stonehenge: Narration historique et romanesque (XIIe–XVe siècles)’, in L’Écriture de l’histoire au Moyen Âge: Contraintes génériques, contraintes documentaires, ed. by Etienne Anheim and others (Paris: Garnier, 2015), pp. 131–47
  • Faletra, Michael A. ‘Narrating the Matter of Britain: Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Norman Colonization of Wales’, Chaucer Review, 35 (2000), pp. 60–85 <>
  • Farrell, Jennifer, ‘History, Prophecy, and the Arthur of the Normans: The Question of Audience and Motivation in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae’, Anglo-Norman Studies, 37 (2014), pp. 99–114
  • Fauvelle, François-Xavier, The Golden Rhinoceros: Histories of the African Middle Ages, trans. by Troy Tice (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018) <>
  • Febvre, Lucien, and Henri-Jean Martin, The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing 1450–1800, trans. by David Gerard (London: Verso, 1997)
  • Felski, Rita, Hooked: Art and Attachment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2020) <>
  • Ferm, Olle, ‘Lilla rimkrönikan’, in The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, ed. by Graeme Dunphy, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 2010), II, p. 1032
  • Flint, V. I. J., ‘The Career of Honorius Augustodunensis: Some Fresh Evidence’, Revue bénédictine, 82.1–2 (1972), pp. 63–86 <>
  • Foister, Susan, Holbein and England (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004)
  • Foister, Susan, Holbein in England (London: Abrams, 2007)
  • Frankopan, Peter, ‘Why We Need to Think About the Global Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval Worlds, 1.1 (2019), pp. 5–10 <>
  • Freccero, Carla, ‘Ovidian Subjectivities in Early Modern Lyric: Identification and Desire in Petrarch and Louise Labé’, in Ovid and the Renaissance Body, ed. by Goran Stanivukovic (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001), pp. 21–37 <>
  • Freccero, John, ‘The Fig Tree and the Laurel: Petrarch’s Poetics’, Diacritics, 5.1 (spring 1975), pp. 34–40 <>
  • Frederiksen, Britta Olrik, ‘57. The Jutland Law’, in Living Words & Luminous Pictures: Medieval Book Culture in Denmark: Catalogue, ed. by Erik Petersen ([n.p.]: Det Kongelige Bibliotek; Moesgård Museum, 1999), pp. 44–45
  • Frederiksen, Britta Olrik, ‘61. Courtly Romances’, in Living Words & Luminous Pictures: Medieval Book Culture in Denmark: Catalogue, ed. by Erik Petersen ([n.p.]: Det Kongelige Bibliotek; Moesgård Museum, 1999), pp. 48–49
  • Frederiksen, Britta Olrik, ‘Dyrerim, De gamle danske’, in Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia, ed. by Phillip Pulsiano and Kirsten Wolf (New York: Garland, 1993), p. 145
  • Frederiksen, Britta Olrik, ‘The History of Old Nordic Manuscripts IV: Old Danish’, in The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages, ed. by Oskar Bandle and others, 2 vols (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2002–05), I (2002), pp. 816–24
  • Fredriksen, Paula, ‘The Confessions as Autobiography’, in A Companion to Augustine, ed. by Mark Vessey with the assistance of Shelley Reid (Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), pp. 87–98 <>
  • Freedman, Paul H., Images of the Medieval Peasant (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999) <>
  • Fulton Brown, Rachel, Mary and the Art of Prayer: The Hours of the Virgin in Medieval Christian Thought (New York: Columbia University Press, 2017) <>
  • Gardini, Nicola, Lacuna (Turin: Einaudi, 2014)
  • Garipzanov, Ildar H., ed., Historical Narratives and Christian Identity on a European Periphery: Early Historical Writing in Northern, East-Central, and Eastern Europe (c. 1070–1200) (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011) <>
  • Gaunt, Simon, ‘Discourse Desired: Desire, Subjectivity and Mouvance in Can vei la lauzeta mover’, in Desiring Discourse: The Literature of Love, Ovid through Chaucer, ed. by James Paxson and Cynthia Gravlee (Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1998), pp. 89–110
  • ‘Gesta Danorum: Kulturhistorisk baggrund’, in Tekster fra Danmarks middelalder og renæssance 1100–1550 — på dansk og latin <> [accessed 14 February 2021]
  • Gill, Katherine, ‘Open Monasteries for Women in Late Medieval and Early Modern Italy: Two Roman Examples’, in The Crannied Wall: Women, Religion, and the Arts in Early Modern Europe, ed. by Craig A. Monson (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992), pp. 15–47
  • Gillespie, Vincent, ‘From the Twelfth Century to c.1450’, in The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, 9 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990–2013), II, ed. by Alastair Minnis and Ian Johnson (2005), pp. 145–235 <>
  • Gillespie, Vincent, ‘Religious Writing’, in The Oxford History of Literary Translation in English: To 1550, ed. by Roger Ellis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 234–83
  • Gillingham, John, ‘The Context and Purposes of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain’, Anglo-Norman Studies, 13 (1990), pp. 99–118
  • Gísli Sigurðsson, ‘Another Audience — Another Saga: How Can We Best Explain Different Accounts in Vatnsdœla saga and Finnboga saga ramma of the Same Events?’, in Text und Zeittiefe, ed. by Hildegard L. C. Tristram (Tübingen: Narr, 1994), pp. 359–76
  • Giunta, Claudio, Codici: Saggi sulla poesia del Medioevo (Bologna: il Mulino, 2005)
  • Glauser, Jörg, ‘Vorwort’, in Skandinavische Literaturgeschichte, ed. by Jörg Glauser, 2nd edn (Stuttgart: Metzler, 2016), pp. viii–xviii <>
  • Gragnolati, Manuele, ‘Authorship and Performance in Dante’s Vita nova’, in Aspects of the Performative in Medieval Culture, ed. by Gragnolati and Suerbaum, pp. 123–40
  • Gragnolati, Manuele, ‘Insegnare un classico: La complessità di Dante e lo spirito critico’, in In cattedra: Il docente universitario in otto autoritratti, ed. by Chiara Cappelletto (Milan: Raffaello Cortina, 2019)
  • Gragnolati, Manuele, ‘The Lyric Poetry’, in Dante’s ‘Other’ Works, ed. by Zygmunt Baranski and Theodore J. Cachey, Jr (Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press, 2022), pp. 1–34
  • Gragnolati, Manuele, and Francesca Southerden, Possibilities of Lyric: Reading Petrarch in Dialogue; With an Epilogue by Antonella Anedda Angioy (Berlin: ICI Berlin Press, 2020) <>
  • Gragnolati, Manuele, and Almut Suerbaum, eds, Aspects of the Performative in Medieval Culture (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2010) <>
  • Green, D. H., Medieval Listening and Reading (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994) <>
  • Green, D. H., ‘Orality and Reading: The State of Research in Medieval Studies’, Speculum, 65.2 (April 1990), pp. 267–80 <>
  • Greene, Thomas M., The Vulnerable Text: Essays on Renaissance Literature (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986)
  • Gronert, Stefan, Bild-Individualität: Die ‘Erasmus’-Bildnisse von Hans Holbein dem Jüngeren (Basel: Schwabe, 1996)
  • The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture, ed. by Colum P. Hourihane, 6 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)
  • Gumbrecht, Hans Ulrich, Production of Presence: What Meaning Cannot Convey (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004) <>
  • Hallberg, Peter, ‘The Syncretic Saga Mind: A Discussion of a New Approach to the Icelandic Sagas’, Mediaeval Scandinavia, 7 (1974), pp. 102–17
  • Hamburger, Jeffrey F., The Visual and the Visionary: Art and Female Spirituality in Late Medieval Germany (New York: Zone Books, 1998)
  • Hamburger, Jeffrey F., ed., Leaves from Paradise: The Cult of John the Evangelist at the Dominican Convent of Paradies bei Soest (Cambridge, MA: Houghton Library of the Harvard College Library, 2008)
  • Hamburger, Jeffrey F., Eva Schlotheuber, and Susan Marti, Liturgical Life and Latin Learning at Paradies bei Soest, 1300–1425: Inscription and Illumination in the Choir Books of a North German Dominican Convent, 2 vols (Münster: Aschendorff, 2016)
  • Hamm, Berndt, ‘Die “nahe Gnade” — innovative Züge der spätmittelalterlichen Theologie und Frömmigkeit’, in ‘Herbst des Mittelalters’? Fragen zur Bewertung des 14. und 15. Jahrhunderts, ed. by Jan A. Aertsen and Martin Pickavé (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2004), pp. 541–57
  • Hansen, Niels Houlberg, ‘The Transformation of the Danish Language in the Central Middle Ages: A Case of Europeanization?’, in Denmark and Europe in the Middle Ages, c. 1000–1525: Essays in Honour of Professor Michael H. Gelting, ed. by Kerstin Hundahl, Lars Kjær, and Niels Lund (London: Routledge, 2014), pp. 111–38
  • Hansen, Reimer, ‘Bruder Nigels dänische Reimchronik niederdeutsch’, Niederdeutsches Jahrbuch, 25 (1899), pp. 132–51
  • Happé, Peter, ed., English Mystery Plays: A Selection (London: Penguin, 1975)
  • Hartmann, Sieglinde, and Stefanie Würth, eds, ‘Deutsch-Skandinavische Literatur- und Kulturbeziehungen im Mittelalter’, Jahrbuch der Oswald von Wolkenstein Gesellschaft, 16 (2006/07), pp. 1–346
  • Harvey, Barbara F., Westminster Abbey and its Estates in the Middle Ages (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977)
  • Hastrup, Kirsten, A Place Apart: An Anthropological Study of the Icelandic World (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998)
  • Haugen, Einar, ‘ First Grammatical Treatise: The Earliest Germanic Phonology’, Language, 26.4 (1950), pp. 4–64 <>
  • Hawkins, Anne Hunsaker, ‘Yvain’s Madness’, Philological Quarterly, 71 (1992), pp. 377–97
  • Heard, Kate, and others, The Northern Renaissance: Dürer to Holbein (London: Royal Collection Publications, 2011)
  • Heidegger, Martin, The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics: World, Finitude, Solitude, trans. by William McNeill and Nicholas Walker (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995) <>
  • Heinzer, Felix, ‘ Claustrum non manufactum — Innenräume normativer Schriftlichkeit’, in Schriftkultur und religiöse Zentren im norddeutschen Raum, ed. by Patrizia Carmassi, Eva Schlotheuber, and Almut Breitenbach (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2014), pp. 141–65
  • Herman, Nicholas, Le Livre enluminé, entre representation et illusion (Paris: BnF Éditions, 2018)
  • Hermann, Pernille, ‘Literacy’, in The Routledge Research Companion to the Medieval Icelandic Sagas, ed. by Ármann Jakobsson and Sverrir Jakobsson (Abingdon: Routledge, 2017), pp. 34–47 <>
  • Hermann, Pernille, ‘Politiske og æstetiske aspekter i Rimkrøniken’, Historisk Tidsskrift [Denmark], 107 (2007), pp. 389–411
  • Hervey, Mary F. S., Holbein’s ‘Ambassadors’: The Picture and the Men (London: Bell and Sons, 1900)
  • Hill, Kat, ‘Brotherhood, Sisterhood, and the Language of Gender in the German Reformation’, Reformation & Renaissance Review, 17 (2015), pp. 181–95 <>
  • Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation (= Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures, 1 (2015)) <>
  • Hobson, Anthony, Humanists and Bookbinders: The Origins and Diffusion of Humanistic Bookbinding 1459–1559 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)
  • Holck, Jakob Povl, ‘Cultural Contacts and Genres of Runes — Danish Literacy around 1300’, in Literacy in Medieval and Early Modern Scandinavian Culture, ed. by Pernille Hermann (Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark, 2005), pp. 151–63
  • Holman, Thomas S., ‘Holbein’s Portraits of the Steelyard Merchants: An Investigation’, Metropolitan Museum Journal, 14 (1980), pp. 139–58 <>
  • Holsinger, Bruce, ‘Of Pigs and Parchment: Medieval Studies and the Coming of the Animal’, PMLA, 124.2 (2009), pp. 616–23 <>
  • Honess, Claire E., and Matthew Treherne, ‘Introduction’, in Se mai continga …: Exile, Politics and Theology in Dante, ed. by Claire E. Honess and Matthew Treherne (Ravenna: Longo, 2013), pp. 7–10
  • Howie, Cary, Claustrophilia: The Erotics of Enclosure in Medieval Literature (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007) <>
  • Hoyer, Jennifer M., and Jennifer Watson, eds, Scandinavia and Germany: Cultural Crosscurrents (= Scandinavian Studies, 91.4 (winter 2019)) <>
  • Hudson, Benjamin, ed., Studies in the Medieval Atlantic (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012) <>
  • Hundahl, Kerstin, and Lars Kjær, ‘Introduction’, in Denmark and Europe in the Middle Ages, c. 1000–1525: Essays in Honour of Professor Michael H. Gelting, ed. by Kerstin Hundahl, Lars Kjær, and Niels Lund (London: Routledge, 2014), pp. 1–7
  • Hybel, Nils, Danmark i Europa 750–1300 (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 2003)
  • Hybel, Nils, and Bjørn Poulsen, The Danish Resources c. 1000–1550: Growth and Recession (Leiden: Brill, 2007) <>
  • Imsen, Steinar, ‘The Union of Calmar — Nordic Great Power or Northern German Outpost?’, in Politics and Reformations: Communities, Polities, Nations, and Empires: Essays in Honor of Thomas A. Brady, Jr., ed. by Christopher Ocker and others (Leiden: Brill, 2007), pp. 471–89 <>
  • Ingesman, Per, and Bjørn Poulsen, eds, Danmark og Europa i senmiddelalderen (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2000)
  • Irigaray, Luce, and Michael Marder, Through Vegetal Being: Two Philosophical Perspectives (New York: Columbia University Press, 2016)
  • Jackson, Kenneth, ‘The Motif of the Threefold Death in the Story of Suibhne Geilt’, in Féil-Sgríbhinn Eóin Mhic Néill/Essays and Studies Presented to Professor Eoin MacNeill, ed. by John Ryan (1940; repr. Kill Lane: Four Courts Press, 1995), pp. 535–50
  • Jarman, A. O. H., ‘Early Stages in the Development of the Myrddin Legend’, in Astudiathau ar yr hengerdd/Studies in Old Welsh Poetry, ed. by Rachel Bromwich and R. B. Jones (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1978), pp. 326–49
  • Jarman, A. O. H., ‘The Merlin Legend and the Welsh Tradition of Prophecy’, in Merlin: A Casebook, ed. by Peter H. Goodrich and Raymond H. Thompson (New York: Routledge, 2003), pp. 103–28
  • Jensen, Lars, and others, ‘Denmark and its Colonies’, in A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures — Continental Europe and its Empires, ed. by Prem Poddar, Rajeev S. Patke, and Lars Jensen (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008), pp. 57–103 <>
  • Jexlev, Thelma, ‘Frille, Eggert’, in Dansk biografisk leksikon, 3rd edn, ed. by Sv. Cedergreen Bech, 16 vols (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1979–84), V (1980), pp. 13–14 <,_jura_og_politik/Myndigheder_og_politisk_styre/Rigsråd/Eggert_Frille> [accessed 13 March 2020]
  • Johnson, Ian, ‘A Perspective from the Far (Medieval) West on Byzantine Theories of Authorship’, in The Author in Middle Byzantine Literature: Modes, Functions, and Identities, ed. by Aglae Pizzone (Boston: De Gruyter, 2014), pp. 277–94 <>
  • Jørgensen, Ellen, Studier over danske middelalderlige Bogsamlinger (Copenhagen: Bianco Lunos bogtrykkeri, 1912)
  • Jørgensen, Jens Anker, and Knud Wentzel, eds, Hovedsporet: Dansk litteraturs historie ([n.p.]: Gyldendal, 2005)
  • Jucknies, Regina, ‘Through an Old Danish Lens? Precious Stones in the Late Medieval Danish Reception of Courtly Literature’, in The Eufemiavisor and Courtly Culture: Time, Texts and Cultural Transfer, ed. by Olle Ferm and others (Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2015), pp. 162–75
  • Justice, Stephen, ‘Did the Middle Ages Believe in their Miracles?’, Representations, 103 (2008), pp. 1–30 <>
  • Kaczynski, Bernice M., ed., The Oxford Handbook of Christian Monasticism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020) <>
  • Kaufmann, Thomas, Der Anfang der Reformation: Studien zur Kontextualität der Theologie, Publizistik und Inszenierung Luthers und der reformatorischen Bewegung (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2018)
  • Kay, Sarah, ‘Legible Skins: Animals and the Ethics of Medieval Reading’, postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies, 2.1 (2011), pp. 13–32 <>
  • Keen, Catherine, ‘Florence and Faction in Dante’s Lyric Poetry: Framing the Experience of Exile’, in Se mai continga …, ed. by Honess and Treherne, pp. 63–83
  • Keevak, Michael, ‘Reading (and Conversion in) Augustine’s Confessions’, Orbis litterarum, 50 (1995), pp. 257–71 <>
  • Kierkegaard, Søren, The Sickness unto Death: A Christian Psychological Exposition for Upbuilding and Awakening, ed. and trans. by Howard V. Hong and Edna H. Hong (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980)
  • Kirakosian, Racha, From the Material to the Mystical in Late Medieval Piety: The Vernacular Transmission of Gertrude of Helfta’s Visions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020) <>
  • Kiser, Lisa J., ‘Margery Kempe and the Animalisation of Christ: Animal Cruelty in Late Medieval England’, Studies in Philology, 106.3 (2009), pp. 299–315 <>
  • Kissinger, Norbert, and others, eds, Anfangsgeschichten: Der Beginn volkssprachiger Schriftlichkeit in komparatistischer Perspektive/Origin Stories: The Rise of Vernacular Literacy in a Comparative Perspective (Paderborn: Fink, 2018)
  • Knowles, David, The Monastic Order in England, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963)
  • Knowles, David, The Religious Orders in England, 3 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948–59)
  • Knowles, David, ed. and trans., The Monastic Constitutions of Lanfranc, rev. by C. N. L. Brooke (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002)
  • ‘Knud den Helliges gavebrev, 1085’, <> [accessed 17 February 2020]
  • Knudsen, Anders Leegaard, ‘Compendium Saxonis & Chronica Jutensis’, in Medieval Nordic Literature in Latin: A Website of Authors and Anonymous Works c. 1100–1530, ed. by Stephan Borgehammar and others <> [accessed 20 February 2020]
  • Knudsen, Anders Leegaard, ‘Interessen for den danske fortid omkring 1300: En middelalderlig dansk nationalisme’, Historisk Tidsskrift [Denmark], 100 (2000), pp. 1–32
  • Knudsen, Anders Leegaard, ‘Kongeriget Danmark i 1332 — et fallitbo’, Historisk Tidsskrift [Denmark], 108 (2008), pp. 321–40
  • Knudsen, Anders Leegaard, Saxostudier og rigshistorie på Valdemar Atterdags tid (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 1994)
  • Knudsen, Anders Leegaard, ‘The Use of Saxo Grammaticus in the Later Middle Ages’, in The Birth of Identities: Denmark and Europe in the Middle Ages, ed. by Brian P. McGuire (Copenhagen: Reitzel, 1996), pp. 147–60
  • Kössinger, Norbert, and others, ‘Introduction’, in Anfangsgeschichten: Der Beginn volkssprachiger Schriftlichkeit in komparatistischer Perspektive/Origin Stories: The Rise of Vernacular Literacy in a Comparative Perspective, ed. by Norbert Kössinger and others (Paderborn: Fink, 2018), pp. 7–8 <>
  • Koster, Severin, Ille Ego Qui: Dichter zwischen Wort und Macht (Erlangen: Universitätsbibliothek Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1988)
  • Krummacher, Hildegard, ‘Zu Holbeins Bildnissen rheinischer Stahlhofkaufleute’, Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, 25 (1963), pp. 181–92
  • Kundert, Ursula, ‘Holsteinische Reimchronik’, in The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, ed. by Graeme Dunphy, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 2010), I, p. 812
  • Lähnemann, Henrike, ‘Bilingual Devotion: The Relationship of Latin and Low German in Prayer Books from the Lüneburg Convents’, in Mysticism and Devotion in Northern Germany in the Late Middle Ages, ed. by Elizabeth Andersen, Henrike Lähnemann, and Anne Simon (Leiden: Brill, 2013), pp. 317–41 <>
  • Lähnemann, Henrike, ‘“An dessen bom wil ik stigen”: Die Ikonographie des Wichmannsburger Antependiums im Kontext der Medinger Handschriften’, Oxford German Studies, 34 (2005), pp. 19–46 <>
  • Lähnemann, Henrike, ‘Saluta apostolum tuum: Apostelvereherung im Kloster Medingen’, in Weltbild und Lebenswirklichkeit in den Lüneburger Klöstern: IX. Ebstorfer Kolloquium vom 23. bis 26. März 2011, ed. by Wolfgang Brandis and Hans-Walter Stork (Berlin: Lukas Verlag, 2015), pp. 41–64
  • Laplanche, Jean, and Jean-Bertrand Pontalis, The Language of Psycho-Analysis, trans. by Donald Nicholson-Smith (London: Hogarth Press, 1973)
  • Lavinsky, David, ‘“Speke to me be thowt”: Affectivity, Incendium Amoris, and the Book of Margery Kempe’, Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 112.3 (2013), pp. 340–64 <>
  • Lawrence, C. H., Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages, 2nd edn (London: Longman, 1989)
  • Lawton, Harold Walter, Térence en France au XVIe siècle: Editions et traductions (Paris: Jouve, 1926)
  • Lea, Anna, ‘Lleu Wyllt: An Early British Prototype of the Legend of the Wild Man?’, Journal of Indo-European Studies, 25 (1997), pp. 35–47
  • Leclercq, Jean, The Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture, trans. by Catherine Misrahi (New York: Fordham University Press, 1982)
  • Ledda, Giuseppe, ‘L’esilio, la speranza, la poesia: Modelli biblici e strutture autobiografiche nel canto XXV del Paradiso’, Studi e Problemi di Critica Testuale, 90.1 (2015), pp. 257–77
  • Ledo, Jorge, ‘Erasmus’ Translations of Plutarch’s Moralia and the Ascensian editio princeps of ca. 1513’, Humanistica Lovaniensia, 68 (2019), pp. 257–96 <>
  • Leerssen, Joep, ‘Literary Historicism: Romanticism, Philologists, and the Presence of the Past’, Modern Language Quarterly, 65 (2004), pp. 221–43 <>
  • Lewis, Robert E., and others, eds, Middle English Dictionary, online edition in Middle English Compendium, ed. by Frances McSparran and others (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Library, 2000–18) <> [accessed 21 March 2020] <>
  • Lochrie, Karma, Margery Kempe and the Translations of the Flesh (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991) <>
  • Lönngren, Ann-Sofie, and others, eds, Rethinking National Literatures and the Literary Canon in Scandinavia (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015)
  • Lombardi, Elena, The Syntax of Desire: Language and Love in Augustine, the Modistae, Dante (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007)
  • Lombardi, Elena, The Wings of the Doves: Love and Desire in Dante and Medieval Culture (Montreal: McGill–Queen’s University Press, 2012)
  • [Lund, Jørn] Professor Higgins, ‘Tysk’, Folkeskolen, 26 May 2006 <> [accessed 17 April 2019]
  • Lyotard, Jean-François, La confession d’Augustin (Paris: Galilée, 1998)
  • Lyotard, Jean-François, The Confession of Augustine, trans. by Richard Beardsworth (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000) <>
  • Macola, Novella, ‘I ritratti col Petrarca’, in Le lingue del Petrarca, ed. by Antonio Daniele (Udine: Forum, 2005), pp. 135–57
  • Macola, Novella, Sguardi e scritture: Figure con libro nella ritrattistica italiana della prima metà del Cinquecento (Venice: Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 2007)
  • Mai, Anne-Marie, Hvor litteraturen finder sted, 3 vols ([n.p.]: Gyldendal, 2010–11), I: Fra Guds tid til menneskets tid 1000–1800 (2010). Saxo ebook
  • Mann, Nicholas, ‘Petrarca giardiniere (a proposito del sonetto CCXXVIII)’, Letture Petrarce, 12 (1992), pp. 235–56
  • [Manuscript Description of Stockholm, Royal Library, K 47], in Tekster fra Danmarks middelalder og renæssance 1100–1550 — på dansk og latin <> [accessed 28 January 2020]
  • Marder, Michael, The Philosopher’s Plant: An Intellectual Herbarium, with illustrations by Mathilde Roussel (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014)
  • Marder, Michael, Plant-Thinking: A Philosophy of Vegetal Life (New York: Columbia University Press, 2013)
  • Margolis, Oren, ‘Hercules in Venice: Aldus Manutius and the Making of Erasmian Humanism’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 81 (2018), pp. 97–126 <>
  • McDonald, Mark, ed., Ceremonies, Costumes, Portraits and Genre, The Paper Museum of Cassiano dal Pozzo: A Catalogue Raisonné: Series C, 1, 3 vols (London: Royal Collection Trust, in association with Harvey Miller, 2017)
  • McDonald, Peter, ‘The Papacy and Monastic Observance in the Later Middle Ages: The Benedictina in England’, Journal of Religious History, 14.2 (1986), pp. 117–32 <>
  • McEntire, Sandra, ed., Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays (London: Garland, 1992)
  • McGinn, Bernard, The Flowering of Mysticism: Men and Women in the New Mysticism (1200–1350) (New York: Crossroad Herder, 1998)
  • McLaughlin, Martin, ‘Biography and Autobiography in the Italian Renaissance’, in Mapping Lives: The Uses of Biography, ed. by Peter France and William St Clair (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 37–65 <>
  • McShane, Bronagh Ann, ‘Visualising the Reception and Circulation of Early Modern Nuns’ Letters’, Journal of Historical Network Research, 2 (2018), pp. 1–25
  • Mecham, June L., Sacred Communities, Sacred Devotions: Gender, Material Culture, and Monasticism in Late Medieval Germany (Turnhout: Brepols, 2014) <>
  • Meeker, Natania, and Antónia Szabari, ‘Libertine Botany: Vegetal Sexuality and Vegetal Forms’, postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies, 9.4 (2018), pp. 478–89 <>
  • Meillassoux, Quentin, ‘L’Inexistence Divine’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Paris, 1997)
  • Meillassoux, Quentin, ‘Spectral Dilemma’, Collapse, 4 (2008), pp. 261–76
  • Mertens, Volker, ‘Bildersaal — Minnegrotte — Liebestrank: Zu Symbol, Allegorie und Mythos im Tristanroman’, Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, 117 (1995), pp. 40–64 <>
  • Meyer, Johannes, ‘Zur Reformationsgeschichte des Klosters Lüne’, Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für niedersächsische Kirchengeschichte, 14 (1909), pp. 162–221
  • Milis, Ludo J. R., Angelic Monks and Earthly Men: Monasticism and its Meaning to Medieval Society (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1992
  • Mitchell, Stephen A., ‘Memory, Mediality, and the “Performative Turn”: Recontextualizing Remembering in Medieval Scandinavia’, Scandinavian Studies, 85.3 (2013), pp. 282–305 <>
  • Mitchell, Stephen A., ‘The Sagaman and Oral Literature: The Icelandic Traditions of Hjörleifr inn Kvensami and Geirmundr heljarskinn’, in Comparative Research on Oral Traditions: A Memorial for Milman Parry, ed. by John Miles Foley (Columbus, OH: Slavica, 1987), pp. 395–423
  • Mize, Britt, ‘The Representation of the Mind as an Enclosure in Old English Poetry’, Anglo-Saxon England, 35 (2006), pp. 57–90 <>
  • Mondin, Luca, ‘Ipotesi sopra il falso proemio dell’Eneide’, CentoPagine, 1 (2007), pp. 64–78
  • Morgan, Marjorie, The English Lands of the Abbey of Bec (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946)
  • Morris, Bridget, ‘Christian Poetry: East Norse’, in Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia, ed. by Phillip Pulsiano and Kirsten Wolf (New York: Garland, 1993), pp. 72–73
  • Mortensen, Klaus P., and May Schack, eds, Dansk litteraturs historie, 5 vols (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 2006–09)
  • Mortensen, Lars Boje, ‘Annales Ryenses’, in The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, ed. by Graeme Dunphy, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 2010), I, p. 85
  • Mortensen, Lars Boje, ‘Compendium Saxonis’, in The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, ed. by Graeme Dunphy, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 2010), I, p. 484
  • Mortensen, Lars Boje, ‘Latin as Vernacular: Critical Mass and the “Librarization” of Book Languages’, in Anfangsgeschichten: Der Beginn volkssprachiger Schriftlichkeit in komparatistischer Perspektive/Origin Stories: The Rise of Vernacular Literacy in a Comparative Perspective, ed. by Norbert Kössinger and others (Paderborn: Fink, 2018), pp. 71–90 <>
  • Mortensen, Lars Boje, ‘Litteraturhistorisk tid — kan middelalderen afskaffes?’, temp — tidsskrift for historie (forthcoming)
  • Mortensen, Lars Boje, and Tuomas M. S. Lehtonen, ‘Introduction: What Is Nordic Medieval Literature?’, in The Performance of Christian and Pagan Storyworlds: Non-Canonical Chapters of the History of Nordic Medieval Literature, ed. by Lars Boje Mortensen and Tuomas M. S. Lehtonen with Alexandra Bergholm (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 1–41 <>
  • Morton, Timothy, ‘Guest Column: Queer Ecology’, PMLA, 125.2 (2010), pp. 273–82 <>
  • Mulder-Bakker, Anneke B., Lives of the Anchoresses: The Rise of the Urban Recluse in Medieval Europe, trans. by Myra Heerspink Scholz (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005) <>
  • Mundal, Else, ‘How Did the Arrival of Writing Influence Old Norse Oral Culture?’, in Along the Oral–Written Continuum, ed. by Slavica Ranković, Leidulf Melve, and Else Mundal (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010), pp. 163–81 <>
  • Muresan, Maria, ‘Belated Strokes: Lyotard’s Writing of The Confession of Augustine’, Romanic Review, 95.1–2 (2004), pp. 151–69 <>
  • Murray, Alan V., ‘The Danish Monarchy and the Kingdom of Germany, 1179–1319: The Evidence of Middle High German Poetry’, in Scandinavia and Europe 800–1350: Contact, Conflict, and Coexistence, ed. by Jonathan Adams and Katherine Holman (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 289–307 <>
  • Nash, Susie, ‘Meditation and Imagination’, in Nash, Northern Renaissance Art (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 271–88
  • Nasti, Paola, ‘Nozze e vedovanza: Dinamiche dell’appropriazione biblica in Cavalcanti e Dante’, Tenzone, 7 (2006), pp. 71–110
  • Nedoma, Robert, ‘Der Beginn volkssprachlicher Schriftlichkeit im alten Skandinavien: Eine Skizze’, in Anfangsgeschichten: Der Beginn volkssprachiger Schriftlichkeit in komparatistischer Perspektive/Origin Stories: The Rise of Vernacular Literacy in a Comparative Perspective, ed. by Norbert Kössinger and others (Paderborn: Fink, 2018), pp. 275–301 <>
  • Nelson, Jennifer, Disharmony of the Spheres: The Europe of Holbein’s Ambassadors (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2019)
  • Newman, Barbara, review of Rachel Fulton Brown, Mary and the Art of Prayer (2018), Speculum 93.4 (2018), pp. 1169–71 <>
  • Niederdeutsch in Skandinavien, vols 1–4, Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie, 4–7 (Berlin: Schmidt, 1987–1993), vols 5–6 [in one] (Frankfurt a.M.: Lang, 2005)
  • Nielsen, Marita Akhøj, ‘Dværgekongen Laurin: Litteraturhistorisk baggrund’, in Tekster fra Danmarks middelalder og renæssance 1100–1550 — på dansk og latin <> [accessed 12 February 2020]
  • Nordentoft, Mette, ‘Zum (nord)europäischen Stemma des Passionstraktates Heinrichs von St. Gallen’, in Niederdeutsch in Skandinavien, 6 vols (1987–2005), IV, ed. by Hubertus Menke and Kurt Erich Schöndorf, Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie, 7 (Berlin: Schmidt, 1993), pp. 168–95
  • Novikoff, Alex J., ‘Anselm, Dialogue, and the Rise of Scholastic Disputation’, Speculum, 86.2 (2011), pp. 387–418 <>
  • Ó Béarra, Feargal, ‘Buile Shuibhne: Vox Insaniae from Medieval Ireland’, in Mental Health, Spirituality, and Religion in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age, ed. by Albrecht Classen (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014), pp. 242–89 <>
  • O’Connor, Ralph, ‘History or Fiction? Truth-Claims and Defensive Narrators in Icelandic Romance-Sagas’, Mediaeval Scandinavia, 15 (2005), pp. 101–69
  • O’Donoghue, Heather, Narrative in the Icelandic Family Saga: Meanings of Time in Old Norse Literature (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021) <>
  • Öberg, Jan, Erika Kihlman, and Pia Melin, eds, Den mångsidige målaren: Vidgade perspektive på Albertus Pictors bild- och textvärld (Stockholm: Sällskapet Runica et Mediævalia, 2007)
  • Oksaar, Els, ‘Eine neuentdeckte mittelniederdeutsche Weltchronik des 15. Jahrhunderts’, Niederdeutsches Jahrbuch, 85 (1962), pp. 33–46
  • Olsson, Annika, ‘Challenging the Bodies and Borders of Literature in Scandinavia: Methodological Nationalism, Intersectionality and Methodological Disciplinarity’, in Rethinking National Literatures and the Literary Canon in Scandinavia, ed. by Ann-Sofie Lönngren and others (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015), pp. 30–51
  • Orlemanski, Julie, ‘Margery’s “Noyse” and Distributed Expressivity’, in Voice and Voicelessness in Medieval Europe, ed. by Irit Ruth Kleiman (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), pp. 123–38 <>
  • Orlemanski, Julie, Symptomatic Subjects: Bodies, Medicine, and Causation in the Literature of Late Medieval England (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019) <>
  • Os, Henk van, ‘The Monastery as a Centre of Devotion’, in The Art of Devotion in the Late Middle Ages in Europe 1300–1500, ed. by Henk van Os, trans. by Michael Hoyle (London: Merrell Holberton, 1994), pp. 50–59
  • Ostrowitzki, Anja, ‘Klösterliche Lebenswelt im Spiegel von Briefen des 16. Jahrhunderts aus dem Benediktinerinnenkloster Oberwerth bei Koblenz’, Studien und Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des Benediktinerordens und seiner Zweige, 124 (2013), pp. 167–206
  • Otter, Monika, ‘1066: The Moment of Transition in Two Narratives of the Norman Conquest’, Speculum, 74 (1999), pp. 565–86 <>
  • Otter, Monika, Inventiones: Fiction and Referentiality in Twelfth-Century Historical Writing (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996)
  • Otter, Monika, ‘Neither/Neuter: Hildebert’s Hermaphrodite and the Medieval Latin Epigram’, Studi medievali, 3rd ser., 48 (2007), pp. 789–807
  • Panofsky, Erwin, The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1943)
  • Paoli, Marco, ‘ Galeotto fu il libro e chi lo dipinse: Ritratti di letterati e scienziati cinquecenteschi raffigurati con un libro. Primo censimento’, Rara volumina, 22 (2015), pp. 5–28
  • Parks, Ward, ‘The Textualisation of Orality in Literary Criticism’, in Vox Intexta: Orality and Textuality in the Middle Ages, ed. by A. N. Doane and Carol Braun Pasternack (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991), pp. 46–61
  • Patota, Giuseppe, ‘Petrarchino’, Bollettino di italianistica, n.s., 13.1 (2016), pp. 53–69
  • Payen, Jean-Charles, ‘The Glass Palace in the Folie d’Oxford: From Metaphorical to Literal Madness’, trans. by Joan Tasker Grimbert, in Tristan and Isolde: A Casebook, ed. by Joan Tasker Grimbert (New York: Routledge, 2013), pp. 111–23
  • Payen, Jean-Charles, ‘Le palais de verre dans la Folie d’Oxford’, Tristania, 5 (1981), pp. 17–28
  • Peterson, Thomas E., ‘“Amor co la man dextra il lato manco” ( Rvf 228) as Allegory of Religious Veneration’, MLN, 135.1 (January 2020), pp. 17–33 <>
  • Petrucci, Armando, Writers and Readers in Medieval Italy: Studies in the History of Written Culture, ed. and trans. by Charles M. Radding (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995)
  • Petter-Wahnschaffe, Katrin, Hans Holbein und der Stalhof in London (Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2010)
  • Picard, Jean-Michel, ‘Merlin, Suibhne et Lailoken: A propos d’un livre récent’, Revue belge de philologie et histoire, 80 (2002), pp. 1495–1503 <>
  • Poulsen, Bjørn, ‘Late Medieval Migration across the Baltic: The Movement of People between Northern Germany and Denmark’, in Guilds, Towns, and Cultural Transmission in the North, 1300–1500, ed. by Lars Bisgaard, Lars Boje Mortensen, and Tom Pettitt (Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark, 2013), pp. 31–56
  • Price, David H., ‘Hans Holbein the Younger and Reformation Bible Production’, Church History, 86 (2017), pp. 998–1040 <>
  • Przybilski, Martin, ‘Denscke Kroneke’, in The Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, ed. by Graeme Dunphy, 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 2010), I, p. 516
  • Quinn, Judy, ‘From Orality to Literacy in Medieval Iceland’, in Old Icelandic Literature and Society, ed. by Margaret Clunies Ross (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 30–60 <>
  • Rabitti, Giovanna, ‘ Nel dolce tempo: Sintesi o nuovo cominciamento?’, in Petrarca volgare e la sua fortuna sino al Cinquecento, ed. by Bruno Porcelli (= Italianistica, 33.2 (May/August 2004)), pp. 95–108
  • Rajendran, Shyama, ‘Undoing “the Vernacular”: Dismantling Structures of Raciolinguistic Supremacy’, in Critical Race and the Middle Ages (= Literature Compass, 16.9–10 (September–October 2019)) <>
  • Ranković, Slavika, ‘The Performative Non-Canonicity of the Canonical: Íslendingasǫgur and their Traditional Referentiality’, in The Performance of Christian and Pagan Storyworlds, ed. by Lars Boje Mortensen, Tuomas M. S. Lehtonen, and Alexandre Bergholm (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 247–72 <>
  • Rebecchini, Guido, ‘Castiglione and Erasmus: Towards a Reconciliation?’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 61 (1998), pp. 258–60 <>
  • Rösli, Lukas, and Stefanie Gropper, ‘In Search of the Culprit. Aspects of Medieval Authorship Introduction: Introduction’, in In Search of the Culprit: Aspects of Medieval Authorship, ed. by Lukas Rösli and Stefanie Gropper (Berlin, De Gruyter, 2021), pp. 9–16 <>
  • Rosand, David, and Michelangelo Muraro, Titian and the Venetian Woodcut (Washington, DC: International Exhibitions Foundation, 1976)
  • Roskill, Mark, and Craig Harbison, ‘On the Nature of Holbein’s Portraits’, Word & Image, 3 (1987), pp. 1–26 <>
  • Rouse, Richard H., and Mary A. Rouse, ‘“Statim invenire”: Schools, Preachers, and New Attitudes to the Page’, in Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century, ed. by Robert L. Benson and Giles Constable (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), pp. 201–28
  • Rudolph, Conrad, ‘First, I Find the Center Point’: Reading the Text of Hugh of Saint Victor’s The Mystic Ark (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2004) <>
  • Rudolph, Conrad, The Mystic Ark: Hugh of Saint Victor, Art, and Thought in the Twelfth Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014) <>
  • Ruh, Kurt, ‘Textkritk zum Mystikerlied Granum sinapis’, in Festschrift Josef Quint, ed. by Hugo Moser and others (Bonn: Bouvier, 1964), pp. 169–84
  • Rushworth, Jennifer, Discourses of Mourning in Dante, Petrarch, and Proust (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016) <>
  • Rushworth, Jennifer, and Francesca Southerden, eds, The Case for a Medieval Barthes (= Exemplaria, 33.3 (2021)) <>
  • Saxl, Fritz, Lectures, 2 vols (London: Warburg Institute, 1957)
  • Schlotheuber, Eva, ‘Gelehrte Bräute Christi’: Geistliche Frauen in der mittelalterlichen Gesellschaft (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2018) <>
  • Schlotheuber, Eva, ‘Intellectual Horizons: Letters from a Northern German Convent’, in Mysticism and Devotion in Northern Germany in the Late Middle Ages, ed. by Elizabeth Andersen, Henrike Lähnemann, and Anne Simon (Leiden: Brill, 2013), pp. 343–72 <>
  • Schlotheuber, Eva, Klostereintritt und Bildung: Die Lebenswelt der Nonnen im späten Mittelalter; Mit einer Edition des ‘Konventstagebuchs’ einer Zisterzienserin von Heilig-Kreuz bei Braunschweig (1484–1507) (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2004)
  • Schlotheuber, Eva, ‘Willibald und die Klosterfrauen von Sankt Klara — eine wechselhafte Beziehung’, Pirckheimer Jahrbuch für Renaissance und Humanismusforschung, 28 (2014), pp. 57–75
  • Schmeidler, Bernhard, ‘Einleitung’, in Adam von Bremen, Hamburgische Kirchengeschichte, 3rd edn, ed. by Bernhard Schmeidler, MGH SS rer. Germ. (Hanover: Hahn, 1917), pp. vii–lxvii
  • Schmidt, Peter, ‘Die Rolle der Bilder in der Kommunikation zwischen Frauen und Männern, Kloster und Welt: Schenken und Tauschen bei den Nürnberger Dominikanerinnen’, in Femmes, art et religion au Moyen Âge, ed. by Jean-Claude Schmitt (Strasbourg: Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, 2004), pp. 34–61
  • Schmitt, Carl, Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty, trans. by George Schwab (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005) <>
  • Schröder, Reinhold, ‘Rumelant von Sachsen, ein Fahrender aus Deutschland in Dänemark’, in The Entertainer in Medieval and Traditional Culture: A Symposium, ed. by Flemming G. Andersen, Thomas Pettitt, and Reinhold Schröder (Odense: Odense University Press, 1997), pp. 15–44
  • Schumm, Johanna, ‘Quoted Confessions: Augustine’s Confessiones and Derrida’s “Circonfession”’, trans. by Jan Schönherr, Comparative Literature Studies, 52.4 (2015), pp. 729–56 <>
  • Scribner, Robert W., For the Sake of Simple Folk: Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994)
  • Scribner, Robert W., ‘Why Was There No Reformation in Cologne?’, Historical Research, 49 (1976), pp. 217–41 <>
  • Shaw, Anthony N., ‘The Compendium Compertorum and the Making of the Suppression Act of 1536’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Warwick, 2003)
  • Silver, Larry, The Paintings of Quinten Massys, with Catalogue Raisonné (Oxford: Phaidon, 1984)
  • Simpson, Otto G. von, ‘ Compassio and Co-redemptio in Roger van der Weyden’s Descent from the Cross’, Art Bulletin, 25 (1953), pp. 9–16 <>
  • Singleton, Charles S, Dante’s ‘Commedia’: Elements of Structure (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1954)
  • Small, John, ed., English Metrical Homilies from Manuscripts of the Fourteenth Century (Edinburgh: Paterson, 1862)
  • Soifer, M., ‘“You say that the Messiah has come …”: The Ceuta Disputation (1179) and its Place in the Christian Anti-Jewish Polemics of the High Middle Ages’, Journal of Medieval History, 31.3 (2005), pp. 287–307 <>
  • Somerset, Fiona, and Nicholas Watson, eds, The Vulgar Tongue: Medieval and Postmedieval Vernacularity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003)
  • Southern, Richard W., Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970)
  • Spencer-Hall, Alicia, ‘The Horror of Orthodoxy: Christina Mirabilis, Thirteenth-Century “Zombie” Saint’, postmedieval: a journal of medieval cultural studies, 8.3 (2017), pp. 352–75 <>
  • Spitzer, Leo, ‘The Addresses to the Reader in the Commedia’, Italica, 32.3 (1955), pp. 143–65 <>
  • Staley, Lynn, Margery Kempe’s Dissenting Fictions (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994)
  • Stark, Hannah, ‘Deleuze and Critical Plant Studies’, in Deleuze and the Non/Human, ed. by Jon Roffe and Hannah Stark (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), pp. 180–96 <>
  • Steel, Karl, ‘Animals and Violence: Medieval Humanism, “Medieval Brutality”, and the Carnivorous Vegetarianism of Margery Kempe’, in The Routledge Companion to Animal–Human History, ed. by Hilda Kean (London: Routledge, 2018), pp. 1650–1716 <>
  • Steel, Karl, How to Make a Human: Animals & Violence in the Middle Ages (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2011)
  • Steinberg, Justin, ‘The Author’, in The Oxford Handbook of Dante, ed. by Manuele Gragnolati, Elena Lombardi, and Francesca Southerden (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021), pp. 3–16 <>
  • Steinberg, Justin, Dante and the Limits of the Law (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013 <>
  • Steinke, Barbara, Paradiesgarten oder Gefängnis? Das Nürnberger Katharinenkloster zwischen Klosterreform und Reformation (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006)
  • Stock, Brian, After Augustine: The Meditative Reader and the Text (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001) <>
  • Stock, Brian, Augustine the Reader: Meditation, Self- Knowledge, and the Ethics of Interpretation (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996)
  • Stöllinger-Löser, Christine, ‘“Denscke Kroneke”’, in Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, 2nd edn, 14 vols (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1978–2008), XI (2004), cols 344–46
  • Strong, James, The New Strong’s Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Greek Testament and the Hebrew Bible (Washington: Faithlife, 2009)
  • Sturm-Maddox, Sara, Petrarch’s Metamorphoses: Text and Subtext in the ‘Rime Sparse’ (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1985)
  • Suárez, Francisco, ‘De voto’, in Opera omnia, 28 vols (Paris: Vives, 1856–78), XIV (1869), pp. 750–1179
  • Suerbaum, Almut, ‘ Es kommt ein schiff, geladen: Mouvance in mystischen Liedern aus Straßburg’, in Schreiben und Lesen in der Stadt: Literaturbetrieb im spätmittelalterlichen Straßburg, ed. by Stephen Mossman, Nigel F. Palmer, and Felix Heinzer (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2012), pp. 99–116 <>
  • Suerbaum, Almut, ‘The Pseudo-Tauler Cantilenae’, Ons Geestelijk Eerf, 84 (2013), pp. 41–54
  • Suerbaum, Almut, in collaboration with Manuele Gragnolati, ‘Medieval Culture “betwixt and between”: An Introduction’, in Aspects of the Performative in Medieval Culture, ed. by Manuele Gragnolati and Almut Suerbaum (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2010), pp. 1–12
  • Suerbaum, Almut, and Annie Sutherland, eds, Medieval Temporalities: The Experience of Time in Medieval Europe (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2021) <>
  • Suerbaum, Almut, George Southcombe, and Benjamin Thompson, eds, Polemic: Language as Violence in Medieval and Early Modern Discourse (Farnham: Ashgate, 2015)
  • Sutherland, Annie, ‘Þe Wohunge of Ure Lauerde and the House without Walls’, in Medieval and Early Modern Religious Cultures: Essays Honouring Vincent Gillespie on his Sixty-Fifth Birthday, ed. by Laura Ashe and Ralph Hanna (Cambridge: Brewer, 2019), pp. 3–19 <>
  • Sutherland, Annie, ‘Performing the Penitential Psalms: Maidstone and Bampton’, in Aspects of the Performative in Medieval Culture, ed. by Manuele Gragnolati and Almut Suerbaum (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014), pp. 15–38
  • Thaler, Peter, Of Mind and Matter: The Duality of National Identity in the German–Danish Borderlands (West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2009) <>
  • Theben, Judith, Die mystische Lyrik des 14. und 15. Jahrhunderts: Untersuchungen — Texte — Repertorium (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2010) <>
  • Thomas, Neil, ‘The Celtic Wild Man Tradition and Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Vita Merlini: Madness or Contemptus Mundi?’, Arthuriana, 10 (2000), pp. 27–40 <>
  • Thompson, Benjamin, ‘Introduction: Monasteries and Medieval Society’, in Monasteries and Society in Medieval England: Proceedings of the 1994 Harlaxton Symposium, ed. by Benjamin Thompson (Stamford: Watkins, 1999), pp. 1–33
  • Thompson, Benjamin, ‘Monasteries, Society and Reform in Late Medieval England’, in The Religious Orders in Pre-Reformation England, ed. by James G. Clark (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2002), pp. 165–95
  • Thompson, Benjamin, ‘The Polemic of Reform in the Later Medieval English Church’, in Polemic: Language as Violence in Medieval and Early Modern Discourse, ed. by Almut Suerbaum, George Southcombe, and Benjamin Thompson (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2015), pp. 183–222
  • Thorpe, Lewis, ‘Merlin’s Sardonic Laughter’, in Studies in Medieval Literature and Languages in Memory of Frederick Whitehead, ed. by W. Rothwell and others (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1973), pp. 323–39
  • Tomasek, Tomas, Die Utopie im ‘Tristan’ Gotfrids von Straßburg (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1985) <>
  • Tranter, Stephen M., ‘Reoralization: Written Influence, Oral Formulation’, in Text und Zeittiefe, ed. by Hildegard L. C. Tristram (Tübingen: Narr, 1994), pp. 45–54
  • Trillmich, Werner, ‘Einleitung’, in Quellen des 9. und 11. Jahrhunderts zur Geschichte der hamburgischen Kirche und des Reiches, ed. by Werner Trillmich and Rudolf Buchner, 7th edn, Freiherr vom Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe, 11 (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2000), pp. 137–58
  • Tronzo, William, Petrarch’s Two Gardens: Landscape and the Image of Movement (New York: Italica Press, 2014) <>
  • Turville-Petre, Gabriel, Origins of Icelandic Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953)
  • Uexküll, Jakob von, A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Men: With a Theory of Meaning, trans. by Joseph D. O’Neil (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010)
  • Uffmann, Heike, ‘Inside and Outside the Convent Walls: The Norm and Practice of Enclosure in the Reformed Nunneries of Late Medieval Germany’, Medieval History Journal, 4 (2001), pp. 83–108 <>
  • Uffmann, Heike, Wie in einem Rosengarten: Monastische Reformen des späten Mittelalters in den Vorstellungen von Klosterfrauen (Bielefeld: Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, 2008)
  • Undorf, Wolfgang, ‘Print and Book Culture in the Danish Town of Odense’, in Print Culture and Peripheries in Early Modern Europe: A Contribution to the History of Printing and the Book Trade in Small European and Spanish Cities, ed. by Benito Rial Costas (Leiden: Brill, 2012), pp. 227–48 <>
  • Urban, William L., Dithmarschen: A Medieval Peasant Republic (Lewiston: Mellen, 1991)
  • Varnam, Laura, and Laura Kalas Williams, eds, Encountering the Book of Margery Kempe (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2022)
  • Voaden, Rosalynn, ‘All Girls Together: Community, Gender and Vision at Helfta’, in Medieval Women in their Communities, ed. by Diane Watt (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), pp. 72–91
  • Vollmann-Profe, Gisela, ‘Mechthild von Magdeburg — deutsch und lateinisch’, in Deutsche Mystik im abendländischen Zusammenhang, ed. by Walter Haug and Wolfram Schneider-Lastin (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2000), pp. 144–58
  • Vosding, Lena, ‘Gifts from the Convent: The Letters of the Benedictine Nuns at Lüne as the Material Manifestation of Spiritual Care’, in Was ist ein Brief? Aufsätze zu epistolarer Theorie und Kultur/What Is a Letter? Essays on Epistolary Theory and Culture, ed. by Marie Isabel Matthews-Schlinzig and Caroline Socha (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2018), pp. 211–33
  • Vosding, Lena, ‘Klösterliche Briefkunst: Die ars dictaminis im Kloster’, in Ars dictaminis: Handbuch der mittelalterlichen Briefstillehre, ed. by Florian Hartmann and Benoît Grévin (Stuttgart: Hiersemann, 2019), pp. 493–517
  • Vosding, Lena, ‘Die Überwindung der Klausur: Briefkultur der Frauenklöster im Spätmittelalter’, in Zwischen Klausur und Welt: Autonomie und Interaktion spätmittelalterlicher Frauengemeinschaften, ed. by Sigrid Hirbodian and Eva Schlotheuber (Ostfildern: Thorbecke, in press)
  • Vrieland, Seán, ‘A Reunited Law: AM 6 8vo’, Manuscript of the Month, 15 February 2020 <> [accessed 7 April 2020]
  • Waddington, Raymond B., Aretino’s Satyr: Sexuality, Satire, and Self-Projection in Sixteenth-Century Literature and Art (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004) <>
  • Wakelin, Daniel, Scribal Correction and Literary Craft: English Manuscripts 1375–1510 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014) <>
  • Walker, Claire, ‘“Doe not supose ma well mortifyed Nun dead to the world”: Letter-Writing in Early Modern English Convents’, in Early Modern Women’s Letter Writing, 1450–1700, ed. by James Daybell (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001), pp. 159–76 <>
  • Wallace, David, ‘Introduction’, in Europe: A Literary History, ed. by David Wallace, 2 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), I, pp. xxvii–xlii
  • Wallace, David, Strong Women: Life, Text, and Territory, 1347–1645 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011) <>
  • Wallace, David, ed., Europe: A Literary History, 1348–1418, 2 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)
  • Waller, Marguerite, Petrarch’s Poetics and Literary History (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980)
  • Ward, H. L. D., ‘Lailoken (or Merlin Silvester)’, Romania, 22 (1893), pp. 504–26 <>
  • Wetzel, James, Augustine: A Guide for the Perplexed (London: Continuum, 2010)
  • Wetzel, James, ‘Augustine on the Will’, in A Companion to Augustine, ed. by Mark Vessey with the assistance of Shelley Reid (Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), pp. 339–52 <>
  • Whitehead, Christiania, ‘Making a Cloister of the Soul in Medieval Religious Treatises’, Medium Aevum, 67 (1998), pp. 1–29 <>
  • Whittow, Mark, ‘Sources of Knowledge; Cultures of Recording’, Past and Present, 238, suppl. 13 (2018), pp. 45–87 <>
  • Williamson, Beth, Christian Art: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) <>
  • Wilson, Robert, Prophecies and Prophecy in Dante’s ‘Commedia’ (Florence: Olschki, 2008)
  • Wind, Edgar, ‘“Hercules” and “Orpheus”: Two Mock-Heroic Designs by Dürer’, Journal of the Warburg Institute, 2 (1939), pp. 206–18 <>
  • Winge, Vibeke, Dänische Deutsche — deutsche Dänen: Geschichte der deutschen Sprache in Dänemark 1300–1800 (Heidelberg: Winter, 1992)
  • Winge, Vibeke, ‘De denscke kroneke — der niederdeutsche Saxo’, in Vulpis Adolatio: Festschrift für Hubertus Menke zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. by Robert Peters, Horst P. Pütz, and Ulrich Weber (Heidelberg: Winter, 2001), pp. 919–28
  • Winge, Vibeke, Pebersvend og poltergejst: Tysk indflydelse på dansk (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 2000)
  • Winge, Vibeke, ‘Zur Übersetzungstätigkeit Niederdeutsch-Dänisch und Dänisch-Niederdeutsch von 1300 bis Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts’, in Niederdeutsch in Skandinavien, 6 vols (1987–2005), III, ed. by Lennart Elmevik and Kurt Erich Schöndorf, Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie, 6 (Berlin: Schmidt, 1992), pp. 30–36
  • Winston-Allen, Anne, Convent Chronicles: Women Writing about Women and Reform in the Late Middle Ages (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004)
  • Wolf, Jürgen, Die Sächsische Weltchronik im Spiegel ihrer Handschriften: Überlieferung, Textentwicklung, Rezeption (Munich: Fink, 1997)
  • Woltmann, Alfred, Holbein und seine Zeit, 2 vols (Leipzig: Seemann, 1866–68)
  • Wormstall, Albert, ‘Eine westfälische Briefsammlung des ausgehenden Mittelalters’, Zeitschrift für vaterländische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 53 (1895), pp. 149–81
  • Würth, Stefanie, ‘Eufemia: Deutsche Auftraggeberin schwedischer Literatur am norwegischen Hof’, in Arbeiten zur Skandinavistik: 13. Arbeitstagung der deutschsprachigen Skandinavistik, 29.7.–3.8.1997 in Lysebu (Oslo), ed. by Fritz Paul (Frankfurt a.M.: Lang, 2000), pp. 269–81
  • Yates, Frances, The Art of Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966)
  • Zak, Gur, Petrarch’s Humanism and the Care of the Self (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010) <>
  • Zumthor, Paul, Essai de poétique médiévale (Paris: Edition du Seuil, 2000)
  • Zumthor, Paul, Merlin le prophète (Lausanne: Payot, 1943)
  • Zumthor, Paul, ‘Merlin: Prophet and Magician’, trans. by Victoria Guerin, in Merlin: A Casebook, ed. by Peter H. Goodrich and Raymond H. Thompson (New York: Routledge, 2003), pp. 129–59

Cite as: Openness in Medieval Europe, ed. by Manuele Gragnolati and Almut Suerbaum, Cultural Inquiry, 23 (Berlin: ICI Berlin Press, 2022) <>